Timeline

  • Battle of Tinchebrai
    1106
    Henry I defeats his brother Robert at the battle of Tinchebrai, and asserts his claim as the Duke of Normandy alongside his title of King of England, uniting the two titles and effectively creating a Norman empire.
  • Death of Henry I
    1135
    Henry I dies, leaving no legitimate male heir. His barons revoke their oaths to make his daughter, Matilda, queen, and instead support his nephew, Stephen in his claim. Henry I’s illegitimate son, Robert of Gloucester, David King of Scotland and Matilda ‘the Empress’ contest his succession in arms.
  • Battle of the Standard
    1138
    King David of Scotland’s army invades northern England, but are stopped by an Anglo-Norman army at Northallerton, sometimes called ‘The Battle of the Standard’.
  • Stephen’s Capture
    1141
    Stephen is captured by Matilda’s forces at the battle of Lincoln.
  • Robert of Gloucester’s Capture
    1141
    Matilda’s foremost supporter, Robert of Gloucester is captured by Stephen’s forces, and the prisoners are exchanged.
  • Henry fitz Empress’ marriage
    1152
    Henry fitz Empress marries Eleanor of Aquitaine, once the wife of Louis of France. Henry gains the Aquitaine in dowry.
  • Henry fitz Empress comes to England
    1153
    Henry fitz Empress lands in southern England with an army of roughly 3,000 men. He is recognised as Stephen’s heir in the Treaty of Wallingford, after the death of Stephen’s son, Eustace.
  • Stephen Dies, Henry II Crowned
    1154
    Stephen dies, and Henry is crowned Henry II.
  • Henry the Young King Crowned
    1170
    Henry II’s son, Henry the Younger, is crowned king within his father’s lifetime, and is known as Henry the young king.
  • Henry the Young King Rebels
    1173
    Henry the Young King rebels against his father’s rule.
  • Henry the Young King Dies
    1183
    Henry the Young King dies.
  • Saladin Captures Jerusalem
    1187
    Jerusalem falls to the armies of Saladin.
  • Henry II Dies
    1189
    After a lengthy rebellion against his reign led by Richard, Eleanor and his youngest son, John, Henry II dies and names Richard his heir.
  • Richard I Crowned
    1189
    Richard I ‘Couer-de-Leon’ crowned.
  • Third Crusade Starts
    1190
    Richard I seeks to fulfill his father’s oath and leaves on crusade. He represents a third of a large crusade made up of the Holy Roman Empire, under Frederick Barbarossa, and Philip Augustus of France, sometimes known as the ‘King’s Crusade’ or the ‘Third Crusade’.
  • Richard I negotiates peace with Saladin
    1192
    Richard I, Frederick Barbarossa having died, and Philip Augustus having returned home, brokers a peace with Saladin. Worried for the state of his kingdom, he returns home. Richard is captured en route back home by Duke Leopold of Austria, who suspects his complicity in the murder of Conrad of Montferrat.
  • John seeks to bribe Austria
    1193
    John seeks to bribe Duke Leopold of Austria into holding Richard prisoner on a permanent basis, to allow him to take the throne.
  • Richard is released
    1194
    Richard is released after an enormous ransom is paid. The ransom is raised from across the Angevin empire. Philip sends word to John that ”The Devil is loose”. Richard returns, secures England, and turns his military attentions to Philip Augustus.
  • Richard releases Philip Augustus
    1198
    Richard defeats Philip Augustus at the Battle of Gisors.
  • Richard I dies
    1199
    Richard I is killed by infection from a crossbow wound to the shoulder whilst trying to suppress a rebellion by Aimar of Limoges. His younger brother John is crowned king.
  • Philip Augustus declares war
    1202
    Philip Augustus declares war against John, ‘dispossessing’ him of his French possessions.
  • Rouen falls
    1204
    Rouen falls, effectively ending Angevin control of Normandy.
  • John signs Magna Carta
    1215
    John signs Magna Carta at Runnymede to quell the dissent of his barons.
  • Louis The Lion invades England
    1216
    Philip Augustus’ son, Louis ‘The Lion’, invades southern England at the invitation of the southern barons, and is crowned in London.
  • John I dies
    1216
    John I dies.
  • Louis The Lion renounces the throne
    1217
    After a series of defections and defeats, Louis ‘The Lion’ signs the treaty of Lambeth, renouncing all claim to the English throne.
  • William the Marshall dies
    1219
    The last great figure of 12th century England, William the Marshall, dies.
  • Battle of Tinchebrai
    1106
    Henry I defeats his brother Robert at the battle of Tinchebrai, and asserts his claim as the Duke of Normandy alongside his title of King of England, uniting the two titles and effectively creating a Norman empire.
  • Death of Henry I
    1135
    Henry I dies, leaving no legitimate male heir. His barons revoke their oaths to make his daughter, Matilda, queen, and instead support his nephew, Stephen in his claim. Henry I’s illegitimate son, Robert of Gloucester, David King of Scotland and Matilda ‘the Empress’ contest his succession in arms.
  • Battle of the Standard
    1138
    King David of Scotland’s army invades northern England, but are stopped by an Anglo-Norman army at Northallerton, sometimes called ‘The Battle of the Standard’.
  • Stephen’s Capture
    1141
    Stephen is captured by Matilda’s forces at the battle of Lincoln.
  • Robert of Gloucester’s Capture
    1141
    Matilda’s foremost supporter, Robert of Gloucester is captured by Stephen’s forces, and the prisoners are exchanged.